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Friday
Nov162012

Maintaining Excitement

Since nothing remains new forever, even for minutes, a new car's ability to fascinate and excite viewers begins to fade immediately. So to maintain the brand's ability to excite consumers automakers have a longstanding tradition of periodically introducing new or freshened designs (called facelifts) that differ enough from their predecessors. But this strategy has its limits. Like a movie actor who has one too many facelifts, designers have to periodically start from scratch with a brand new face—as actors sometimes wish they could. Typically, an "all new" design appears every four years or so. During the highly competitive Fabulous Fifties American automakers introduced all-new models as often as every other year or, in a few cases, annually. 

"All New" 1968 Pontiac GTO

The all-new design of the 1968 Pontiac GTO, arguably the most beautiful American car of its day, is credited to William Porter who headed the advanced studio where its theme originated. Bill Porter was one of Detroit's most highly regarded designers, a "designer's designer." When given a clean sheet of paper he strove to create "high concept" designs, to borrow Hollywood's terminology, for the same reason good screenwriters avoid wordiness. Typical of Porter's work, the '68 GTO was clean, simple and elegant.

1968 Pontiac GTO concept sketch by William Porter

Porter's sketch depicts curves and surfaces that flow smoothly rather than changing direction often or abruptly. The unifying, body-colored nose and subtle fender blisters are the outstanding visual features of the design. The blisters' cross-sections depart only gradually and slightly from the underlying body shape; that's why they seem so subtle. They lend the car's overall form a Coke-bottle shape that is barely discernible, if at all, especially in lighter colors. 

Subtlety, itself, is not exciting (see "Creating Excitement" for more details). But the GTO's unusual degree of subtlety at the time was exciting because it was so novel. The body-colored plastic nose was novel, too, because it was an industry first at the time. By blending with the body's shape and color, it abets the design's simplicity by creating a sense of unity; it exists visually as a body, not a body and bumper. We expect the nose to be symmetrical horizontally like the rest of the car. But the vertical symmetry, top to bottom, which further unified the car's overall form to an unusual degree, was also novel.  Hidden headlights and a simple grille texture composed of just horizontal elements (no vertical elements) maintained the simplicity. So do integrated parking and side-marker lights. 

1968 Pontiac GTO showing skyline reflection and cross-section

Subtlety of form is evident in the smooth undulations of the "horizon reflection" along a car's side. We seldom see the actual horizon, of course, because buildings, trees and everything else in the environment obscure it—unless we happen to be at the seashore where the horizon is clearly visible. So "horizon reflection" is a misnomer. That's why I prefer the term "skyline reflection," which Japanese designers use, because it describes more accurately what it corresponds to; the bottom edge of the visible sky meandering around buildings, trees and other features of the car's environment. In the drawings, the shaded areas represent reflections of the ground the car sits on. The skyline reflection defines the top edge of the ground reflection and sets it off from the reflection of the sky represented by the unshaded areas. In the real world the sky reflection usually has a cool, blue cast. The ground reflection usually has a warmer, perhaps brownish cast. People seldom notice these things but try looking for them next time you see a car outside, especially one painted a dark color. 

These reflections are worth noting because they are as important in our perception of a car's appearance as any tangible line or profile. In fact, they are so endemic to a car's appearance—appearing many times, including upside down variants in concave surfaces—that a designer sometimes begins a design with a skyline reflection. Having designed one or more attractive reflections, the designer then contrives surfaces that would result in such reflections. 

Simple cross-sections, like those of the '68 GTO's simple surfaces, produce simple skyline reflections. The optics of curved, mirror-like surfaces compress reflections of environmental irregularities. Surfaces with enough curvature have skyline reflections that approximate the linear reflection of a true horizon. A sharply creased surface grabs hold of a skyline reflection and takes it along virtually wherever it goes. 

1969 Pontiac GTO minor facelift

It goes without saying that each new design, whether all-new or merely a facelift, must differ from its predecessor and competitors in order to be effective. Otherwise, why bother? No one was fooled into thinking the 1969 GTO was anything more than a facelifted '68 model. Since the novelty of the original had dissipated over the year since it was new, designers add new details that would draw the viewer's eye. So they increased the front end's complexity by adding the bright metal bars running horizontally across the grilles. They creased the flat grille surface into a slight V-section. They added vertical grille elements to further increase complexity. They separated the combined parking lights/side marker into separate units and made the parking light much more complicated by adding the decorative cross-piece. In the final analysis the '69 model's design seems more complex or "busy" than the '68. Some critics were disappointed because it "lost elegance," but others preferred it because it wasn't "plain." 

1970 Pontiac GTO major facelift

Designers had to take more drastic action to juice up the now two-year old design for 1970. For such a major facelift Pontiac spent money to change body-side stamping dies in order to introduce more information in the sides. The S-shaped cross-section through the front fender introduces potential for an additional upside-down skyline reflection in the concave region. The geometry of reflection (which I won't get into here) actually sets up the possibility for two new skyline reflections through any given cross-section.  This can be seen at the door's front edge, which amounts to a cross-section, where three skyline reflections cross it; only one crossed it in the original '68 model. Concave surfaces thus yield disproportionate complexity; at least twice the excitement of a convex surface. The result is a more interesting (exciting) skyline reflection that now zigzags along the car's side instead of lazily meandering as before. This explains why concave surfaces have become so common lately.

They also invested in a brand new nose. It's still a one-piece affair painted the same color as the body. But it is more complex and more traditional. The headlights have come out from hiding. The grille opening has shrunk to the more normal proportions of other Pontiacs. And the separate side marker lights have grown in size and moved up to a more prominent position on the front fender. Automotive enthusiasts, who bought Pontiacs for their sporty "performance car" images liked this redesign. Those to whom the simpler, more elegant '68 model appealed disliked it because it was so "cluttered.'

1971 Pontiac GTO major facelift

As time for the fourth generation model arrived, those in charge of marketing were really desperate to inject one last bit of energy into the design with a facelift for the 1971 model. They invested in yet another new nose. It was still body-colored but included more traditional bumper forms molded into it. Notice that they added two more skyline reflections in the process. Designers tipped the grille texture 45 degrees to make it different and more exciting (vertical and horizontal lines are less exciting). The grille and its housing was pushed forward to make the whole car seem more active and aggressive. The air scoops on the hood were enlarged and push further forward for the same reason. The parking lights were changed to circles. The side marker lights were doubled. 

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